Xiaoqi Jackie Zhang, Ph.D.

Professor


Ph.D. Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, 1999

M.S. Environmental Engineering, Tsinghua University (Beijing), 1994

B.S. Civil & Environmental Engineering, Tongji University (Shanghai), 1989

 

Email: Jackie_Zhang@uml.edu

Phone: (978) 934-2287

Location: Pasteur 107

Specialty: Environmental Engineering

 

Research Areas:

 

Extracellular polymeric substances, fixed-film wastewater treatment, stormwater treatment, phosphorus removal and recovery from confined animal feeding operations, biologically induced phosphorus removal from septic systems, environmental pollutants removal using innovative nanoparticles, and evaluation of the impact of nanoparticles on wastewater treatment processes.  

 

Courses Offered in Past Decade:

  • 25.108 Introduction to Engineering (II)

  • 14. 460 Water Resources Engineering

  • 14. 561 Physical Chemical Treatment Processes

  • 14. 567 Environmental Aquatic Chemistry

  • 14. 578 Biological Wastewater Treatment

Awards:

 

2007 ASCE Rudoph Hering Medal for the most valuable contribution to the environmental engineering branch of engineering based on the paper, “Engineered Struvite Precipitation: Impacts of Component-Ion Molar Ratios and pH,” Journal of Environmental  Engineering, October, 2005

 

Narrative Descriptions:

 

Dr. Zhang received her Ph.D. degree from the University of Cincinnati in 1999.  She joined Carollo Engineers Santa Ana office as a Process Engineer early 1999.  She was involved in several wastewater treatment plant and process design projects.  In 2000, Dr. Zhang joined the faculty team in the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Missouri-Rolla (now Missouri University of Science and Technology) as an Assistant Professor.  In Fall 2002, Dr. Zhang joined the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at UMass Lowell as an Assistant Professor.

 

Dr. Zhang has been working with biological wastewater treatment systems for over a decade.  She has been conducting research in fixed film biological systems, characterization of extracellular polymeric substances, pathogen removal from stormwater, phosphorus removal and recovery from confined animal feeding operations, biologically induced phosphorus removal from septic systems, environmental pollutants removal using innovative nanoparticles, and evaluation of the impact of nanoparticles on wastewater treatment processes.  Dr. Zhang has also been active in service-learning education activities.

 

Dr. Zhang has been elected as a member of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Design Committee by Water Environment Federation since 2005.  She has served proposal review panels for NSF BES program, NSF NUE program, EPA SBIR and EPA STAR Fellowship programs.  She has served as session chairs and scientific committees for several international conferences.  She has been a technical reviewer for numerous journals, e.g., Journal of Environmental Engineering, Chemosphere, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Water Environment Research, and Environmental Science and Technology.

 

Sample List of Externally Funded Research Projects:

  1. Co-PI, 9/10-8/11, Porous Metal Nanoparticles for Enhanced Environmental Remediation.UML (PI: Zhiyoung Gu).

  2. Co-PI, 9/08-8/11, MRI: Acquisition of Instrumentations for Studying Complex Contaminants in Water, NSF (PI: Ken Lee; Other: Clifford Bruell).

  3. PI (sub-contract), 9/07-8/10.  Kinetics and extent of Fe(III) reduction-dependent phosphorus removal using anaerobic sequencing batch reactors.  CICEET/University of Illinois- Urbana Champion.

  4. Senior personnel, 9/09-8/14, NSEC: New England Nanomanufacturing Center for Enabling Tools, NSF (PI: J. Mead, etc.).

  5.  PI, 4/08-2/09, Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to the activated sludge process: protective ability of extracellular polymeric substances. Massachusetts Water Resources Research Center.  (Co-PI: Lauren Luongo).

  6. PI, 09/05-08/08, NUE: Laboratory Modules on Environmental Impacts of Nanotechnology, NSF (Co-PIs: C. Bruell, M. Hines, A. Watterson, and C. Barry).

  7. Co-PI, 09/05-08/09, Service-learning integrated throughout a college of engineering (SLICE):  implementation, NSF (PI: John Duffy; Others: C. Barry, J. Ting, and D. Clark).

  8. Co-PI, 09/04-08/06, Service-learning integrated throughout a college of engineering (SLICE), NSF (PI: John Duffy; Others: C. Barry, J. Ting, and D. Clark).

  9. Senior personnel, 04/04-8/09, NSEC: New England Nanomanufacturing Center for Enabling Tools, NSF (PI: J. Mead, etc.).

  10. PI, 06/05-12/06, Environmental impacts of CNTs: assessment of CNTs on wastewater treatment processes, Massachusetts Technology Collaborative.

  11. PI, 09/04-02/06, Exploring the application of functionalized nanospheres for Pb removal. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sea Grant Program (Co-PI: S. McCarthy).

  12. PI, 09/03-02/06, Copper removal by biofilms. Massachusetts Water Resources Research Center /USGS.

  13. PI, 09/03-08/05, Measuring pollutant removal efficiencies of stormwater treatment units. New England Transportation Consortium.

  14. Co-PI, 04/01-12/04, Environmental Technologies for Concentrated Animal Feed Operations, EPA. (PI: C. Adam at U. Kansas; Others: M. Fitch, J. Burken at MUST).

  15. PI, 06/00-12/01, Heavy Metal Absorption by Biofilm Exopolymers. Missouri Research Board.

Book Chapter:

Zhang, X., Bruell, C., Yin, Y., Jayaradu, P. and Watterson, A. (2009) Chapter 8-Introducing Nanotechnology into Environmental Engineering Curriculum.  ACS Symposium Series 1010- Nanotechnology in Undergraduate Education.  pp.101-121.

Peer-reviewed Journal Publications:

  1. Goyal, D., Zhang, X. and Rooney-Varga, J. N. (2010) Impacts of single-walled carbon nanotubes on microbial community structure in activated sludge.  Letters in Applied Microbiology. (in print)

  2. Luongo, L. and Zhang, X. (2010) Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to the activated sludge process.  J. of Hazardous Materials. 178 (2010) 356–362.

  3. Yin, Y., Zhang, X., Graham, J. and Luongo, L. (2009) Impacts of purified single-walled carbon nanotubes on activated sludge process. J. of Environmental Science and Health. A44 (7), 661 – 665.

  4. Yin, Y. and Zhang, X. (2008) Evaluation of the Impact of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in an Activated Sludge Wastewater Reactor.  Water Science and Technology 58(3), 623–628.

  5.  Sharma, K., Zhang, X., Liu, Y., Lin, W. and Yu, T. (2008) Biological Fixed Film Systems-Review.  Water Environment Research.  80 (10), 1078-1112.

  6. Zhang, X., Gartner, N., Gunes, O. and Ting, J. (2007) Integrating Service-Learning Projects into Engineering Courses.  The International Journal for Service-Learning in Engineering. 2(1), 44-63.

  7. Sharma, K., McSwain, B., Zhang, X., Lin, W. and Yu, T. (2007) Biological Fixed Film Systems – Review. Water Environment Research. 79(10), 1363-1391.

  8.  Zhang, X., Brussee, K., Coutinho, C. T. and Rooney-Varga, J. (2006) Impacts of Chemical Stress Induced by Copper: Examination of a Biofilm System. Water Science and Technology 54 (9), 191-199.

  9. Yu, T., Lin, W., McSwain, B.S., Yu, M. and Zhang, X. (2006) Biological Fixed Film Systems – Review. Water Environment Research 78(10), 1324-1362.

  10. Zhang, X. and Lulla, M. (2006) Evaluation of Pathogenic Indicator Bacteria in Structural BMPs.  J. of Environmental Science and Health. A41(11), 2483-2493.

  11. Zhang, X. and Lulla, M. (2006) Distribution of Pathogenic Indicator Bacteria in Structural BMPs.  J. of Environmental Science and Health A41(8), 1421-1436.

  12. Wang, J., Burken, J. G. and Zhang, X. and Surampalli, R. (2005) Effects of Seeding Materials and Mixing Strength on Struvite Precipitation. Water Environment Research 78(4), 125-132.

  13.  Yu, T., Lin, W., McSwain, B.S., Yu, M. and Zhang, X. (2005) Biological Fixed Film Systems – Review. Water Environment Research. 77(6), 1263-1346.

  14. Ramasamy, P. and  Zhang, X. (2005) Effects of Shear Stress on the Secretion of Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Biofilm. Water Science and Technology 52(7), 217-223.

  15. Wang, J., Burken, G.L., Zhang, X., and Surampalli, R. (2005) Engineered Struvite Precipitation: Impacts of Component-ion Molar Ratios and pH.  Journal of Environmental Engineering 131(10), 1433-1440. 

  16. Zhang, X. and Bishop, P. L. (2003) Biodegradability of Biofilm Extracellular Polymeric Substances. Chemosphere  50, 63-69.

  17. Zhang, X. and Bishop, P. L. (2001) Spatial Distribution of Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Biofilm.  J. of Environmental Engineering 127(9), 850-856.

  18. Zhang, X., Bishop, P. L. and Kinkle, B. K. (1999) Comparison of Extraction Methods for Quantifying Extracellular Polymers in Biofilms.  Water Science and Technology 39(7), 211-218.

  19. Zhang, X., Bishop, P. L. and Kupferle, M. (1998) Measurement of Polysaccharides and Protein in Biofilm Extracellular Polymers.  Water Science and Technology 37(5), 345-348.

Conference Proceedings:

  1. Cheng, X., Zhang, X. and Sun, D. (2010) Iron Reduction-induced Phosphorus Precipitation in Septic Systems.  83th Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference.  October 2-6, 2010, New Orleans, Louisiana.

  2. Cheng, X., Zhang, X. and Sun, D. (2009) Enhancement of phosphorus removal by iron amendments in a septic system. IWA 2nd Specialized Conference on Nutrient Management in Wastewater Treatment Processes. Krakow, Poland, Sept 6-9, 2009.

  3. Luongo, L.  and Zhang, X. (2009) Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to the activated sludge process: Protective ability of extracellular polymeric substances.  International Conference on the Environmental Implications and Applications of Nanotechnology.  June, 2009, Amherst, MA.

  4. Yin, Y. and Zhang, X. (2008) Evaluation of the Impact of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in an Activated Sludge Wastewater Reactor.  International Water Association Annual Conference. Sept 7-11, 2008, Vienna, Austria.

  5. Yin, Y., Zhang, X., Graham, J. and Luongo, L.  (2007) Assessment of Carbon Nanotubes on Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Process. 80th Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference.  October 13-17, 2007, San Diego, CA. pp. 3196-3205.

  6. Zhang, X., Bruell, C., Yin, Y. and Jayaradu, P. (2007) Introducing Nanotechnology into Environmental Engineering Curriculum. ASEE Annual Conference, Honolulu, HI.

  7. Duffy, J., Kazmer, D., Barrington, L., Ting, J., Barry, C., Zhang, X., Clark, D. and Rux, A. (2007) Service-learning Integrated into Existing Core Courses Throughout a College of Engineering. ASEE Annual Conference, Honolulu, HI.

  8. Zhang, X., Brussee, K., and Rooney-Varga, J. (2006) Impacts of Chemical Stress Induced by Copper- Examination of a Biofilm System.  International Water Association Biennial Conference. Beijing, China. Sept. 2006. 

  9. Jayaradu, P., Zhang, X., Tyagi, R., Kumar, A., and Watterson, A. (2006) Lead Adsorption by Functionalized Nanospheres. 232nd American Chemical Society Fall National Meeting.  September, San Francisco, CA.  pp.184-189.

  10. Zhang, X., Gartner, N., Gunes, O. and Ting, J. (2006) Implementation of Service-Learning Projects in Civil Engineering Courses.  American Society of Engineering Education Annual Conference. June, 2006, Chicago, IL.

  11. Zhang, X. and Lulla, M. (2005) Distribution of Pathogenic Indicator Bacteria in a Structural BMP.  Proceedings of Water Environment Federation Annual Conference. Washington, DC. Oct. 2005. pp. 5044-5057.

  12. Ramasamy, P. and Zhang, X. (2004) Effect of Shear Stress on the Amount of Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Biofilm. International Conference, Biofilms 2004: Structure and Activity of Biofilms. Las Vegas, NV.  pp.144-149.

  13. Wang, J., Burken, J. G. and Zhang, X. (2003) Effects of Seeding Materials and Mixing Strength on Struvite Precipitation. Water Environment Federation Annual Conference. Los Angeles, CA. Oct. 2003. pp.1-13.

  14. Zhang, X. and Bishop, P. L. (2000) Biodegradability of Biofilm Extracellular Polymeric Substances.  Proceedings of the International Water Association Specialty Conference—Extracellular Polymeric Substances.  Mulheim, Germany. Sept. 18-20, 2000.

  15. Zhang, X., Bishop, P. L. and Yu, Y. (1999) Spatial Distribution of Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Biofilms.  Proceedings of 72nd Water Environment Federation Annual Conference & Exposition. New Orleans, LA. pp. 1-9.

  16. Zhang, X. Bishop, P. L., and Kinkle, B. K. (1998) Extraction of Extracellular Polymers from Biofilms using Five Different Methods.  Proceedings of Water Environment Federation 71st Annual Conference & Exposition. Orlando, FL. pp.13-27.

  17. Zhang, X., Bishop, P.L. and Kinkle, B. (1998) Comparison of extracellular Polymeric Extraction Methods in Biofilms. International Specialty Conference on Microbial Ecology of Biofilms: Concepts, Tools and Applications. Lake Bluff, Illinois, Oct 8-10, 1998. pp. 270-277.

 Conference Oral Presentations:

  1. Cheng, X., Zhang, X. and Sun, D. (2010) Iron Reduction-induced Phosphorus Precipitation in Septic Systems.  83th Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference.  October 2-6, 2010,  New Orleans, Louisiana.

  2. X. Cheng, X. Zhang, and D. Sun (2010) Phosphate Precipitation Induced by Iron(III) Bioreduction in Septic Systems.  5th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology 2010. Houston, TX.  July 12-16, 2010.

  3. X. Cheng, X. Zhang, and D. Sun (2010) Phosphate Precipitation Induced by Iron(III) Bioreduction in Septic Systems -A Novel Process of Phosphorus Removal under Anaerobic Conditions.  The 6th International Conference on Interfaces against Pollution. May 16-19, 2010.  Harbin, China.

  4. Luongo, L. and Zhang, X. (2009) Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to the activated sludge process: Protective ability of extracellular polymeric substances.  International Conference on the Environmental Implications and Applications of Nanotechnology.  June, 2009, Amherst, MA.

  5. Yin, Y. and Zhang, X. (2008) Evaluation of the Impact of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in an Activated Sludge Wastewater Reactor.  International Water Association Annual Conference. Sept 7-11, 2008, Vienna, Austria.

  6. Yin, Y. and Zhang, X. (2007) Assessment of Carbon Nanotubes on Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Process. Water Environment Federation Annual Conference.  San Diego, CA.

  7. Zhang, X., Bruell, C., Yin, Y. and Jayaradu, P. (2007) Introducing Nanotechnology into Environmental Engineering Curriculum. ASEE Annual Conference, Honolulu, HI.

  8. Duffy, J., Kazmer, D., Barrington, L., Ting, J., Barry, C., Zhang, X., Clark, D. and Rux, A. (2007) Service-learning Integrated into Existing Core Courses Throughout a College of Engineering. ASEE Annual Conference, Honolulu, HI.

  9. Zhang, X., Bruell, C., Hines, M., Watterson, A. and Barry, C. (2007) Laboratory Modules on Environmental Impacts of Nanotechnology, 233rd ACS National Meeting, Chicago, IL.  March 25-29, 2007.

  10. Zhang, X., Brussee, K., and Rooney-Varga, J. (2006) Impacts of Chemical Stress Induced by Copper- Examination of a Biofilm System.  International Water Association Biennial Conference. Beijing, China. Sept. 2006. 

  11. Zhang, X. Gartner, N. Gunes, O. and Ting, J. (2006) Implementation of Service-Learning Projects in Civil Engineering Courses.  American Society of Engineering Education Annual Conference. June, 2006, Chicago, IL.

  12. Zhang, X. and Lulla, M. (2005) Distribution of Pathogenic Indicator Bacteria in a Structural BMP.  Water Environment Federation Annual Conference. Washington, DC. Oct. 2005

  13. Zhang, X. Brussee, K. and Rooney-Varga, J. (2005)  Examination of Cellular Response of Biofilms to Copper Contamination. Massachusetts Water Resources Research Center/UMass Extension 3rd Annual Conference "Research to Practice: Science for Sustainable Water Resources.”  Amherst, MA.  Oct. 2005.

  14. Ramasamy, P. and Zhang, X. (2004) Effect of Shear Stress on the Amount of Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Biofilm. International Conference, Biofilms 2004: Structure and Activity of Biofilms. Las Vegas, NV.  
  15. Ramasamy, P. and Zhang, X. (2004) Effect of Shear Stress on the Amount of Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Biofilm. New England Water Environment Association Annual Conference, Boston, MA.

  16. Wang, J., Burken, J. G. and Zhang, X. (2003) Effects of Seeding Materials and Mixing Strength on Struvite Precipitation. Water Environment Federation Annual Conference. Los Angeles, CA. Oct. 2003.

  17. Xie, L. and Zhang, X. (2001) Measurement of Exopolysaccharides in Wastewater Biofilms by Enzyme-Linked Lectinsorbent Assay (ELLA). Mid-America Environmental Engineering Conference. St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

  18. Withers A. J. and Zhang, X. (2001) Copper Absorption by Biofilm Extracellular Polymeric Substances. Missouri Branch, American Society for Microbiology and Midwest Microbiology Educators Conference.  St. Louis, MO.

  19. Withers, A. J. and Zhang, X. (2000) Heavy Metal Removal by Biofilm EPS. Mid-America Environmental Engineering Conference.  Columbia, Missouri, USA.

  20. Zhang, X. and Bishop, P. L. (2000) Biodegradability of Biofilm Extracellular Polymeric Substances.  International Water Association Specialty Conference—Extracellular Polymeric Substances.  Mulheim, Germany.

  21. Zhang, X., Bishop, P. L. and Yu, Y. (1999) Spatial Distribution of Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Biofilms.  Water Environment Federation Annual Conference.

  22. Zhang, X. Bishop, P. L., and Kinkle, B. K. (1998) Extraction of Extracellular Polymers from Biofilms using Five Different Methods.  Water Environment Federation Annual Conference.

 Invited Talks:

  1. Zhang, X. (2009) Toxicity of Carbon Nanotubes- protective ability of EPS. University of Connecticut.  March 27th, 2009.

  2. Zhang, X. (2008) 4th Annual K-12 Nanotechnology Teacher Conference, University of New Hampshire.  April 9, 2008.

  3. Zhang, X. (2007) 3rd Annual K-12 Nanotechnology Teacher Conference, University of New Hampshire.  April, 2007.

  4. Zhang, X. (2005) Guest lecturer for 31.521“Introduction to Green Chemistry,” UML.

  5. Zhang, X. (2005) Evaluation of pathogenic indicator bacteria in stormwater treatment units.  Dept. of Chemistry/Center for Complex Environmental Systems. UML.

  6. Zhang, X. (2004) Struvite Precipitation: Impacts of Seeding and Mixing Strength. Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst.

  7. Zhang, X. (2002) Copper Removal by Biofilms and Monitoring of Exopolysaccharides. Department of Chemistry/Center for Complex Environmental Systems. UML.

  8. Zhang, X. (2002) Monitoring the Shift of Exopolysaccharides in Biofilms during Copper Removal and Phosphorus Removal from CAFO Wastes. Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, UML.

  9. Zhang, X. (2001) Monitoring the Shift of Exopolysaccharides in Biofilms during Copper Removal.  Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada.

  10. Zhang, X. (1999) Properties and Functions of Extracellular Polymeric Substances. Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla.

Poster Presentations:

  1. Goyal, D., Yin, Y., Zhang, X., Luongo, L. and Rooney-Varga, J.N. (2009) Impact of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on the Structure of Microbial Communities in Activated Sludge Bioreactors. International Conference on the Environmental Implications and Applications of Nanotechnology.  June, 2009, Amherst, MA.

  2. Goyal, D., Yin, Y., Zhang, X., Luongo, L. and Rooney-Varga, J.N. (2008) Impact of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on the Structure of Microbial Communities in Activated Sludge Bioreactors. 108th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology.  Boston, MA. May, 2008.

  3. Luongo, L. and Zhang, X. (2008) Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to the activated sludge process: Protective ability of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS).  Massachusetts Water Resources Research Conference.  April, 2008.  Amherst, MA. 

  4. Jayaradu, P., Zhang, X., Tyagi, R., Kumar, A., and Watterson, A. (2006) Lead Adsorption by Functionalized Nanospheres. American Chemical Society Fall National Meeting.  September, San Francisco, CA

  5. Zhang, X. Gartner, N. Gunes, O. and Ting, J. (2006) Implementation of Service-Learning Projects in Civil Engineering Courses.  Conference on Service Learning in Engineering at National Academy of Engineering. May, 2006. Washington, DC. 

  6. Duffy, J., Ting, J., Barry, C., Zhang, X., Kazmer, D., Clark, D. and Rux, A. (2006)  Service-Learning Integrated throughout a College of Engineering.  Conference on Service Learning in Engineering at National Academy of Engineering. May, 2006. Washington, DC.  

  7. Yin, Y. and Zhang, X. (2005) Impact of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) on Wastewater Treatment. Massachusetts Water Resources Research Center/UMass Extension 3rdAnnual Conference "Research to Practice: Science for Sustainable Water Resources.” Amherst, MA.  Oct. 2005.

  8. Jayaradu, P. and Zhang, X. (2005) Lead Removal By Functionalized Nanospheres.  Massachusetts Water Resources Research Center/UMass Extension 3rd Annual Conference "Research to Practice: Science for Sustainable Water Resources.” Amherst, MA.  Oct. 2005.

  9. Brussee, K and Zhang, X. (2005) Copper Removal by Biofilms.  8th Annual Student Research Symposium. UML.

  10. Lulla, M. and Zhang, X. (2005) Bacterial Monitoring in Stormwater Treatment Units”.  8th Student Research Symposium.  UML.

  11. Martinez, K., Brussee, K. and Zhang, X. (2005) Adaptability of Biofilm Exposed to Copper.  8th Annual Student Research Symposium. UML.

  12. Brussee K. and Zhang, X. (2004) Cellular Response of Biofilms Exposed to Copper.  Second Annual Water Resources Research Center's Conference.  Amherst, MA.

  13. Lulla, M. and Zhang, X. (2004) Bacterial Monitoring in the Storm Water Treatment Units.  Second Annual Water Resources Research Center's Conference.  Amherst, MA.

  14. Ramasamy, P. and Zhang, X. (2004) Effects of shear stress on the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances in biofilm.  7th Annual Student Research Symposium. UML.

  15.  Brusess, K. and Zhang, X. (2004) Copper Removal by Biofilms. 7th Annual Student Research Symposium. UML.

  16. Lulla, M. and Zhang, X. (2004) Measuring pollutant removal efficiencies of stormwater treatment units. 7th Annual Student Research Symposium. UML.

  17. Ramasamy, P. and Zhang, X. (2003) The effects of shear stress on the extracellular substances in biofilm. New England Environmental Association (NEWEA) conference, January 26-29th, Boston.

  18. Brussee K. and Zhang, X. (2003) Copper Removal by Biofilms. First Annual Water Resources Research Center's Conference.  Amherst, MA.

  19. Xie, L. and Zhang, X. (2002) Examination of Exopolysaccharides in Wastewater Biofilm by Enzyme-Linked Lectinsorbent Assay (ELLA).  American Society for Microbiology, 102nd General Meeting, Salt Lake City, Utah.

  20. Xie, L. and Zhang, X. (2001) Measurement of Exopolysaccharides in Wastewater Biofilms by Enzymelinked lectinsorbent assay (ELLA). Mid-America Environmental Engineering Confernce. St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

  21. Withers A. J. and Zhang, X. (2001) Copper Absorption by Biofilm Extracellular Polymeric Substances. Missouri Branch, American Society for Microbiology and Midwest Microbiology Educators Conference. St. Louis, MO.

  22. Withers, A. J. and Zhang, X. (2000) Heavy Metal Adsorption by Biofilm EPS. American Society for Microbiology Conference on Biofilms 2000. Big Sky, MT.

  23. Withers, A. J. and Zhang, X. (2000) Heavy Metal Removal by Biofilm EPS. Mid-America Environmental Engineering Conference. Columbia, Missouri, USA.

  24. Zhang, X. and Bishop, P. L. (2000) Biodegradability of Biofilm by its Own Producers.  1st World Congress of the International Water Association. Paris, France.

  25. Zhang, X. Bishop, P. L., and Kinkle, B. K. (1998) Comparison of Extracellular Polymer Extraction Methods on Biofilm. Proceedings of IAWQ International Specialty Conference: Microbial Ecology of Biofilms, pp. 270-277.  Lake Bluff, IL.

  26. Zhang, X. and Bishop, P. L.  (1997) Examination of Biofilm Age on Extracellular Polymer Composition. Abstracts of 97th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, pp. 507.

  27. Zhang, X., Bishop, P. L. and Kupferle, M. (1997) Measurement of Polysaccharides and Protein in Biofilm Extracellular Polymers. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Microorganisms in Activated Sludge and Biofilm Processes, pp. 551-554.

  28. Zhang, X. (1996) Dynamic Simulation Study on Copper Recovery from Electroplating Sludge.   Paper 61.  89th A&WMA Annual Meeting.  Nashville, TN.

  29. Zhang, X. and Bishop, P. L. (1996) Quantification of Extracellular Polymers in Aerobic Heterotrophic Biofilm Reactors. Paper 12. 19th Midwest Environmental Chemistry Workshop.  West Lafayette, IN.